Chic Men's Leather Driving Casual Leisure Business Boots Loafer Loafer Loafer Shoes Jd_uk 9139c2

Chic Men's Leather Driving Casual Leisure Business Boots Loafer Loafer Loafer Shoes Jd_uk 9139c2Chic Men's Leather Driving Casual Leisure Business Boots Loafer Loafer Loafer Shoes Jd_uk 9139c2Chic Men's Leather Driving Casual Leisure Business Boots Loafer Loafer Loafer Shoes Jd_uk 9139c2Chic Men's Leather Driving Casual Leisure Business Boots Loafer Loafer Loafer Shoes Jd_uk 9139c2Chic Men's Leather Driving Casual Leisure Business Boots Loafer Loafer Loafer Shoes Jd_uk 9139c2Chic Men's Leather Driving Casual Leisure Business Boots Loafer Loafer Loafer Shoes Jd_uk 9139c2Chic Men's Leather Driving Casual Leisure Business Boots Loafer Loafer Loafer Shoes Jd_uk 9139c2Chic Men's Leather Driving Casual Leisure Business Boots Loafer Loafer Loafer Shoes Jd_uk 9139c2Chic Men's Leather Driving Casual Leisure Business Boots Loafer Loafer Loafer Shoes Jd_uk 9139c2Chic Men's Leather Driving Casual Leisure Business Boots Loafer Loafer Loafer Shoes Jd_uk 9139c2Chic Men's Leather Driving Casual Leisure Business Boots Loafer Loafer Loafer Shoes Jd_uk 9139c2

Item specifics

Condition:
New with box: A brand-new, unused, and unworn item (including handmade items) in the original packaging (such as ... Read moreabout the condition
Brand: Unbranded
Euro Size: EUR 46 Style: Driving Moccasins
Country/Region of Manufacture: China US Shoe Size (Men's): 10.5
Material: Leather
Skechers for Work Men's 76832EW/Blk Rockland Systemic Black Size 11.5 Wide WidthVANS LP ZAPATO GORE DISTRESSED BLACK MENS SIZE 9 NEW SKATE SHOES,ECCO Men's 500114 Fusion II Black Leather Slip On Casual Shoe *NEW*,Kenneth Cole New York Got A Clue Mens Brown Leather Casual Dress Loafers Shoes 8,Mens Punk Metal Decor Toe Slip On Rivets Studded Casual Loafer Skateboard Shoes,Men's Slip on Loafers Low Top Roudn Toe Flat Heel Side Zipper Decorated Shoes,Sperry Top-Sider 0777914 Halyard Navy 2-Eyelet Casual Boat Shoes Sz 13M (V235),Cole Haan Leathet Ssndals Sz 10.5,Black,must See,Vans Old Skool Skate Shoes Dark Slate DX Blocked Skateboard Casual Unisex,Sperry Men's Mako Canoe Moc Boat Shoe Sz 8 Med F857,Converse Chuck Taylor 70 Low Blue Chill,Clarks Original Shoes Ankle Boots Men Size 9.5M Suede Leather Upper,Jordan Mens Westbrook 0.2 Black Fashion Sneakers Shoes 14 Medium (D) BHFO 1662,CLARKS ACTIVE MENS BLACK PEBBLED LEATHER CASUAL SHOE SIZE 12 M,Avia Avi‑Forum Sneakers, Men's Size 10.5, Penguin Grey/True Navy,Mens Black Suede Embroidery Pointed Toe Driving Moccasin Loafers Casual Shoes F4ROCKPORT MENS NEW OXFORD TIE UPS GORGEOUS BROWN SZ 12M ADIPRENE BY ADDIDAS,2018 Mens Denim Canvas Loafers College Flats Casual Shoes Breathable Slip On,DOCKERS PRO STYLE ALL MOTION COMFORT PROPET SHOES MEN'S SIZE 11 XX(5E) M4078DAKOTA Men's Street Sport Steel Toe Steel Plate Slip-On Shoes Black/Gray 9M,Ted Baker Mens Kiing Casual Fashion Sneaker Shoe Dark Blue Suede Size 7 M USAllen Edmonds Nashua Loafers 9.5 C Kiltie Tassle Fringed Shawl Pebbled Leather,MERRELL WORK MEN'S JUNGLE MOC COMP TOE C.S.A. WORK SHOE Espresso Size 11 Wide,Sperry Gold Cup Shoes Mens Size 10 M Excellent Condition!,Call It Spring™ Gallager Mens Shoes Size 13 white leatherSpring Men's Slip On Oxford Printed Pointy Toe Nigthclub Party Casual Shoes szDickies Gen Flex by Women's Crew Neck Solid Scrub Jacket - Choose SZ/ColorSize US6-12 Mens Comfort Driving Soft Flats Loafers Casual Leather Shoes Sneaker,G.H.Bass & Co. Garfield Men's Black Leather Slip On Loafers Shoes Sz 7 M NEW,Vintage SAS Shoes Leather Chukka Sneakers Comfort Oxfords Mens USA 12.5M 47

Chic Men's Leather Driving Casual Leisure Business Boots Loafer Loafer Loafer Shoes Jd_uk 9139c2

Let’s begin with a couple of riddles: What’s bigger than a whale yet hides out of sight?

What could fill 250 semi trucks yet spreads itself thin?

The answer lies in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon and it tries to kill whatever it touches. But to see it, you have to know what to look for.

It’s a fungus.

"People don’t think of mushrooms killing trees,” says Greg Filip, a pathologist with the U.S. Forest Service. Trees often benefit from mushrooms at their roots.

Honey mushrooms, however, suck the life out of a number of types of trees. The trees fight back, shoving out the invading fungus, pitch oozing out of holes in the bark. But in many cases it's a lost cause.

“It’s girdled by the fungus,” Filip says. “The fungus will grow all the way around the base of the tree and then kills all the tissues.” Filip stands in the Malheur National Forest surrounded by trees dying in slow motion.

“It could be 20, 30, 50 years maybe before it finally dies,” he says. If you’re thinking of a classic mushroom with a cap and gills and spores, the honey mushroom fits that bill for only a few weeks each autumn.

Most of the year it’s just a thin, white layer that packs a lethal punch. Filip chops with a hand axe at the base of a tree. Higher and higher he removes bark. Even two feet above the roots, he finds a layer of the white fungus. His fingers peel back a layer “like latex paint.” That white fungus spreads up under the tree’s bark and rots its roots.

"Then there’s no movement of water or nutrients up and down the tree when that happens,” Filip says. Back in 1988, Greg Whipple was the first Forest Service employee to realize they had “something different” on their hands. Back then it seemed to cover 400 acres.

Today, its footprint covers more than 3 square miles. “We haven’t seen anything else in the literature that would suggest that anything else in the world is larger in acreage,” Filip says.

They’ve dug out samples far and wide and in every spot they find more fungus. It’s not just the same type of fungus. DNA testing has convinced the scientists this is the largest single living organism in the world.

If you could scoop it all up and pile it together, scientists calculate it could weigh at least 7,500 tons, and maybe up to 35,000 tons. That’s the weight of more than 200 gray whales. This humongous fungus is nothing new.

“When you realize this fungus spreads at 1 to 3 feet a year and you have something that large, you can calculate the age," Filip says. "And we’re looking at something anywhere from 2,000 to 8,000 years old. Its scientific name is Armillaria.

It also has a couple common nicknames, including “honey mushroom” and “shoestring fungus.” Instead of white, rubbery layers, the fungus sends out black fibers underground. The trees’ interconnected roots provide an unwitting pathway for this parasite on the prowl. The honey mushroom exists in other places, like Michigan and Germany.

But Oregon’s is the largest ever measured. Near Glenwood, Washington the fungus has plagued private timber harvesters for decades. In the 1970s, researchers set out to see if they could eliminate the fungus entirely on test plots at a private timber farm.

In some areas, they cut trees and dug out stumps. In others, they went farther and raked out every last fibrous root they could find. This produced the best results with less fungus and more pine trees survived after being planted on this treated ground. The study has continued for more than 40 years.

Dan Omdal, with the Washington Department of Natural Resources, says there’s one significant drawback to the most effective approach. “It’s very expensive and oftentimes prohibitive to do that level of intervention.”

Timber companies can’t afford to dig out every last trace of the fungus. Omdal is trying another approach. Perhaps they can find which kind of trees can best manage to live with the fungus.

On DNR land near Glenwood, they deliberately planted four different kinds of conifers inches from the stump of a tree killed by Armillari. Of the ponderosa pine, Doug fir, western larch and white pine, perhaps one can tolerate the fungus without dying.

“Remember, it’s the baddest fungus on the block,” says Omdal. “We’re looking for a tree that can grow in its presence. It’s foolish to plant the same species where you harvested in areas that are infested by the disease.”

In eastern Oregon, pathologist Filip notes there’s another way to view the humongous fungus: as a helpful invasion. It’s simple nature helping nature. The fungus kills trees, rots them and recycles them back into the soil.

“There’s a wildlife benefit to these trees,” says Filip, “Once they’re dead, they decay, the birds begin to excavate them and use them for cavities." Living on such a scale, under entire forests, scientists say the humongous fungus is not something humans will have much impact on. It’s part of the landscape.

Mens Tiger Embroidery Patent Leather Mocasin Loafers Slip On Casual Shoes Hot Ch,