02-3606 Women's Sam Edelman Penny Riding Boot, Boot, Boot, Size 12M da44c4

02-3606 Women's Sam Edelman Penny Riding Boot, Boot, Boot,  Size 12M da44c4

Item specifics

Condition: :
An item that has been or previously. See the seller’s listing for full details and description of any imperfections.See all condition definitions- opens in a new window or tab
Style: Riding Boots Brand: Sam Edelman
US Shoe Size (Women's): US 12 UPC: Does not apply
SAM EDELMAN Women's Lucca Taupe Suede Ankle Booties S 7.5 Fall Fashion Buckles,Fashion Womens High Stiletto Heels Mid Calf Boots Side Zip Platform Shoes CasualLADIES NEW WESTERN BLACK LEATHER DAN POST COWBOY BOOTS- SZ 8 1/2 M,LAUREN by Ralph Lauren Womens DAMARA Leather Closed Toe, Black/Black, Size 6.0 E,Womens Over Knee High Boots Flats Strappy Suede Leather Military Long Boots New,XIDISO Snow Boots for Men Women Waterproof Boot Anti-Slip Winter Shoes Slip O...,American Living Jaycee Strap Studded Knee High Boots Dark Brown 6US/37EU DisplayChic Womens Suede Pull on Casual Outdoor Vintage Ankle Boot Chelsea Chukka Shoes,Womens Ankle Winter Boot Heel Stitch Mix Color Zipper Night clu Shoes StilettoWomens Roman Suede Gladiator Stretchy Over Knee Thigh Boots Shoes Chunky Heels,Women Wedge Heel Platform Suede Platform Ankle Boots Side Zipper Casual Shoes,Ladies Goth Ankle Boots High Heel Pu Leather Side Zipper Platform Buckle ShoesWomens Over The Knee Boots Suede Leather Chunky High Heel Shoes Pointed Toe PlusWomen Platform Wedge Knee High Snow Boots Round Toe Fur thick Pull On Shoes 13,Sweet Warm Winter Womens Fur Trim Creepers Zipper Ankle Boots Shoes,Women Stiletto Heels Pointy Toe Side Zip Suede Side Zip Over Knee Boots Shoes,TOMMY HILFIGER Women’s Black Leather Block Heel High Ankle Boots Size 9.5M,TSUBO Black Leather Knee Hi Wedge Platform Walking Boots Size 8.5,Women Block Heels Riding Over Knee High Boots Rhinestones Pull On Leisure ShoesWomen's Plarform PU Leather High Block Heel Over Knee Thigh Boots Shoes Zip Size,Women Block Heels Rhinestones Floral Suede Side Zip Leisure Ankle Boots Shoes,NEW! GUESS Black Leather Moto Side Buckle Zip Ankle Bootie Boots Sz 7,PUMA Women's Enzo NF Mid Wn Sneaker - Choose SZ/color,Women frosted chunky block heels pull on over knee thigh boots sexy thick shoes,Womens Pointy Toe High Block Heel Side Zip Faux Fur Trim Ankle Boots Shoes SIZE,NEW Women Leopard Print Ankle High Heel Boot Size 8,NEW SONOMA Sz 9.5M Tan color Zip Back Chunky Cutout High Heel Peep Toe BootiesNEW JUSTIN GYPSY SZ 6.5 L9901 BROWN/PINK LEATHER FLEXIBLE COMFORT SYSTEM BOOTS,Fashion Women Faux Suede Pointy Toe Knee High Boots Fringe Block Med Heels Shoes,Chic Womens Stiletto Shoes PU Leather High Heel Hidden Platform Zip Ankle Boots,

02-3606 Women's Sam Edelman Penny Riding Boot, Boot, Boot, Size 12M da44c4

Let’s begin with a couple of riddles: What’s bigger than a whale yet hides out of sight?

What could fill 250 semi trucks yet spreads itself thin?

The answer lies in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon and it tries to kill whatever it touches. But to see it, you have to know what to look for.

It’s a fungus.

"People don’t think of mushrooms killing trees,” says Greg Filip, a pathologist with the U.S. Forest Service. Trees often benefit from mushrooms at their roots.

Honey mushrooms, however, suck the life out of a number of types of trees. The trees fight back, shoving out the invading fungus, pitch oozing out of holes in the bark. But in many cases it's a lost cause.

“It’s girdled by the fungus,” Filip says. “The fungus will grow all the way around the base of the tree and then kills all the tissues.” Filip stands in the Malheur National Forest surrounded by trees dying in slow motion.

“It could be 20, 30, 50 years maybe before it finally dies,” he says. If you’re thinking of a classic mushroom with a cap and gills and spores, the honey mushroom fits that bill for only a few weeks each autumn.

Most of the year it’s just a thin, white layer that packs a lethal punch. Filip chops with a hand axe at the base of a tree. Higher and higher he removes bark. Even two feet above the roots, he finds a layer of the white fungus. His fingers peel back a layer “like latex paint.” That white fungus spreads up under the tree’s bark and rots its roots.

"Then there’s no movement of water or nutrients up and down the tree when that happens,” Filip says. Back in 1988, Greg Whipple was the first Forest Service employee to realize they had “something different” on their hands. Back then it seemed to cover 400 acres.

Today, its footprint covers more than 3 square miles. “We haven’t seen anything else in the literature that would suggest that anything else in the world is larger in acreage,” Filip says.

They’ve dug out samples far and wide and in every spot they find more fungus. It’s not just the same type of fungus. DNA testing has convinced the scientists this is the largest single living organism in the world.

If you could scoop it all up and pile it together, scientists calculate it could weigh at least 7,500 tons, and maybe up to 35,000 tons. That’s the weight of more than 200 gray whales. This humongous fungus is nothing new.

“When you realize this fungus spreads at 1 to 3 feet a year and you have something that large, you can calculate the age," Filip says. "And we’re looking at something anywhere from 2,000 to 8,000 years old. Its scientific name is Armillaria.

It also has a couple common nicknames, including “honey mushroom” and “shoestring fungus.” Instead of white, rubbery layers, the fungus sends out black fibers underground. The trees’ interconnected roots provide an unwitting pathway for this parasite on the prowl. The honey mushroom exists in other places, like Michigan and Germany.

But Oregon’s is the largest ever measured. Near Glenwood, Washington the fungus has plagued private timber harvesters for decades. In the 1970s, researchers set out to see if they could eliminate the fungus entirely on test plots at a private timber farm.

In some areas, they cut trees and dug out stumps. In others, they went farther and raked out every last fibrous root they could find. This produced the best results with less fungus and more pine trees survived after being planted on this treated ground. The study has continued for more than 40 years.

Dan Omdal, with the Washington Department of Natural Resources, says there’s one significant drawback to the most effective approach. “It’s very expensive and oftentimes prohibitive to do that level of intervention.”

Timber companies can’t afford to dig out every last trace of the fungus. Omdal is trying another approach. Perhaps they can find which kind of trees can best manage to live with the fungus.

On DNR land near Glenwood, they deliberately planted four different kinds of conifers inches from the stump of a tree killed by Armillari. Of the ponderosa pine, Doug fir, western larch and white pine, perhaps one can tolerate the fungus without dying.

“Remember, it’s the baddest fungus on the block,” says Omdal. “We’re looking for a tree that can grow in its presence. It’s foolish to plant the same species where you harvested in areas that are infested by the disease.”

In eastern Oregon, pathologist Filip notes there’s another way to view the humongous fungus: as a helpful invasion. It’s simple nature helping nature. The fungus kills trees, rots them and recycles them back into the soil.

“There’s a wildlife benefit to these trees,” says Filip, “Once they’re dead, they decay, the birds begin to excavate them and use them for cavities." Living on such a scale, under entire forests, scientists say the humongous fungus is not something humans will have much impact on. It’s part of the landscape.

Fergalicious Cupid Faux Leather Ankle Boots, Women's - Size 7.5 M, Doe,