New Womens Size 7M Annie Dress Shoes Lancaster Open Toe Dress Annie Sandal Black 173ca7

New Womens Size 7M Annie Dress Shoes Lancaster Open Toe Dress Annie Sandal Black 173ca7

Item specifics

New with box: A brand-new, unused, and unworn item (including handmade items) in the original packaging (such as ... Read moreabout the condition
Style: Open Toe
Brand: Annie Shoes Color: Black
US Shoe Size (Women's): 7 Width: M)
Heel Height: Low (3/4 in. to 1 1/2 in.) UPC: Does not apply
MERRELL Oceania Black Size 6 Leather Slip On Loafer Flats Shoes Vibram Sole,Sperry Women's Biscayne Leopard Brown/Black US 5 NWD NOBWomens Flat Pumps Buckle Round Toe Mary Jane Summer Sandal Lolita New Shoes Plus,Tory Burch Eddie Ballet Flats Black Size 7,Tsubo Milon Womens Leather Casual Boat Shoe Tan/Khaki Size 8Calvin Klein Jeans AMY Brown Leather Ballet Flats Casual Dress Shoes Size 8.5Womens Mary Janes Pumps Shoes Metal decor Buckle Strap Brogues Patent Leather szWomens Flat Heels Pointed Toe Tassels Slip On Fashion Style Casual Shoes A563,BLACK EUR38 AU7 Womens Loafer Genuine Leather size 38,Earth Origins Regina Mary Janes Size 9 M Black Leather Med Heel,Dolce Vita Women's Cowan Loafer Flat,Titanium Leather,6 Medium US,Born Black Leather Casual Comfort Slip On Ballet Flats Shoes Women's Size 8 / 39,Cole Haan country Womens shoes black Slip On Moc Toe pinched Loafer SZ 8B F9441,ECCO Slip On Athletic Mary Jane Loafers Comfort Walking Shoes Euro 38 Women's 8,sperry top sider womens shoes sz 10 wedge black closed toe hhWomen's Tassel Pull On High Wedge Heel Creeper Platform Party Casual Shoes Plus,Revere Womens Silver Sandals Size 8 (417793)Classiques Entier Black Suede Leather Slip On Round Toe Flats Size 12Sperry Top-Sider Chime Navy Pink Elastic Straps SON-R Tech Boat Shoes Women 6 M,LUCKY BRAND Womens Emmie Brown Leather Casual Flats Shoes Size 6.5 W IP-168CLARK'S BLACK LEATHER LOAFER MULE sz 8,PROPET BROWN LEATHER SANDALS SHOES. SIZE 10.5 S (4A),Women Trainers Breathable Plimsolls Slip On Flat Sneakers Pumps Shoes A3773,Bettye Womens Beige Slingbacks Size 10 (391577)New Bella Vita Womens Ozark StonePlaidFlannel Ballet Flats Size 6.5 (A, N),Womens Brogue Oxfords Pumps Flat Ankle Strap Cross Strap Shoes Lolita Date New,Clarks Artisan Women’s Dunbar Gold Leather Moccasin Slip On Driving Loafer 8.5,NWOB CLARKS ARTISAN 73267 Wo's 7M Black Leather Basket Weave Buckle Mules,Natural Soul by Naturalizer Francis SUede Shoes 7.5 M EUCWomen's Mary Jane Slip on Chunky Heels Buckle strap Retro Ladies Shoes US Size,

New Womens Size 7M Annie Dress Shoes Lancaster Open Toe Dress Annie Sandal Black 173ca7

Let’s begin with a couple of riddles: What’s bigger than a whale yet hides out of sight?

What could fill 250 semi trucks yet spreads itself thin?

The answer lies in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon and it tries to kill whatever it touches. But to see it, you have to know what to look for.

It’s a fungus.

"People don’t think of mushrooms killing trees,” says Greg Filip, a pathologist with the U.S. Forest Service. Trees often benefit from mushrooms at their roots.

Honey mushrooms, however, suck the life out of a number of types of trees. The trees fight back, shoving out the invading fungus, pitch oozing out of holes in the bark. But in many cases it's a lost cause.

“It’s girdled by the fungus,” Filip says. “The fungus will grow all the way around the base of the tree and then kills all the tissues.” Filip stands in the Malheur National Forest surrounded by trees dying in slow motion.

“It could be 20, 30, 50 years maybe before it finally dies,” he says. If you’re thinking of a classic mushroom with a cap and gills and spores, the honey mushroom fits that bill for only a few weeks each autumn.

Most of the year it’s just a thin, white layer that packs a lethal punch. Filip chops with a hand axe at the base of a tree. Higher and higher he removes bark. Even two feet above the roots, he finds a layer of the white fungus. His fingers peel back a layer “like latex paint.” That white fungus spreads up under the tree’s bark and rots its roots.

"Then there’s no movement of water or nutrients up and down the tree when that happens,” Filip says. Back in 1988, Greg Whipple was the first Forest Service employee to realize they had “something different” on their hands. Back then it seemed to cover 400 acres.

Today, its footprint covers more than 3 square miles. “We haven’t seen anything else in the literature that would suggest that anything else in the world is larger in acreage,” Filip says.

They’ve dug out samples far and wide and in every spot they find more fungus. It’s not just the same type of fungus. DNA testing has convinced the scientists this is the largest single living organism in the world.

If you could scoop it all up and pile it together, scientists calculate it could weigh at least 7,500 tons, and maybe up to 35,000 tons. That’s the weight of more than 200 gray whales. This humongous fungus is nothing new.

“When you realize this fungus spreads at 1 to 3 feet a year and you have something that large, you can calculate the age," Filip says. "And we’re looking at something anywhere from 2,000 to 8,000 years old. Its scientific name is Armillaria.

It also has a couple common nicknames, including “honey mushroom” and “shoestring fungus.” Instead of white, rubbery layers, the fungus sends out black fibers underground. The trees’ interconnected roots provide an unwitting pathway for this parasite on the prowl. The honey mushroom exists in other places, like Michigan and Germany.

But Oregon’s is the largest ever measured. Near Glenwood, Washington the fungus has plagued private timber harvesters for decades. In the 1970s, researchers set out to see if they could eliminate the fungus entirely on test plots at a private timber farm.

In some areas, they cut trees and dug out stumps. In others, they went farther and raked out every last fibrous root they could find. This produced the best results with less fungus and more pine trees survived after being planted on this treated ground. The study has continued for more than 40 years.

Dan Omdal, with the Washington Department of Natural Resources, says there’s one significant drawback to the most effective approach. “It’s very expensive and oftentimes prohibitive to do that level of intervention.”

Timber companies can’t afford to dig out every last trace of the fungus. Omdal is trying another approach. Perhaps they can find which kind of trees can best manage to live with the fungus.

On DNR land near Glenwood, they deliberately planted four different kinds of conifers inches from the stump of a tree killed by Armillari. Of the ponderosa pine, Doug fir, western larch and white pine, perhaps one can tolerate the fungus without dying.

“Remember, it’s the baddest fungus on the block,” says Omdal. “We’re looking for a tree that can grow in its presence. It’s foolish to plant the same species where you harvested in areas that are infested by the disease.”

In eastern Oregon, pathologist Filip notes there’s another way to view the humongous fungus: as a helpful invasion. It’s simple nature helping nature. The fungus kills trees, rots them and recycles them back into the soil.

“There’s a wildlife benefit to these trees,” says Filip, “Once they’re dead, they decay, the birds begin to excavate them and use them for cavities." Living on such a scale, under entire forests, scientists say the humongous fungus is not something humans will have much impact on. It’s part of the landscape.

Women's Rhinestone Beads Lolita Pointy Toe Flat Causal Shoes Slip On PLUS SzA632,